Higher Education: Reasons For Dropping Out/Discontinuing Study

Source: https://scroll.in/article/823743/private-higher-education-is-burgeoning-in-india-but-millions-cant-afford-it

Source: https://www.dreducation.com/2012/01/trend-2012-india-education-data.html

Profit Induced Privatized Higher Education

Indian higher education has developed fast in the last couple of decades. This expansion has indeed been fueled mostly by unregulated private-sector activities. There seem to be legitimate worries that several of them are of poor quality and deceptive. The rise has indeed been haphazard and uncontrolled owing to the government's uncertainty about the role of the private sector in higher education. As public financing decreased, higher education student enrollment increased. This lowered learning integrity even more. Thus consequently, many private schools, colleges, and universities were obliged to hike education costs to stay afloat. The governance authority has failed to keep up with the times and to prevent exploitation by these ever-rising private education providers. Conversely, it led to the construction of significant entrance restrictions, resulting in high tuition fees for university and college students. 

India's higher education system has just a limited number of high-quality institutes. The bulk of institutes have low, deteriorating quality & performance.  The tiny amount of good academic institutes are of extremely tough standards, resulting in high-stakes qualifying examinations and thereby enabling a widespread thriving private tutoring business. The situation is so dire that positive discrimination quota-based reservations are in position, as such quota-based reservation systems have taken central stage in populist electoral politics, and rightfully so.

Higher education prepares a person for many socioeconomic responsibilities in the community and promotes technical development, which supports socioeconomic prosperity. A nation's potential for higher learning must be linked with the nation's socioeconomic need, which includes the need for the presence of high-quality instructors, professors & teachers in the school, college, and university system. Because college or university education may not generate jobs, a discrepancy between the demanded number of excellent graduates would result in jobless graduates and/or a scarcity of graduates having specific capabilities. Nowadays, students confront the hard cold reality of rising joblessness, which coexists with talent deficits in various fields.

The reality is that industry after industry is experiencing a shortage of trained and competent workers. It is inexcusable that several individuals in a nation of over a billion citizens yet are jobless or working in low-wage jobs. The rise of big corporations and increases in education costs at state schools with no need for a comprehensive financial support program at the school has put higher education out of grasp for the poor in India.


Higher Education in Foreign Countries

Instead of pursuing inward-looking strategies, numerous nations are changing existing academic institutions to make themselves more internationally viable. This shift is being driven by a mix of given practicalities and dogma of the nation’s vision. 

Having the globe’s best academic system, the United States established a panel to investigate the prospects of academic institutions (in September 2005). The committee's objective was to guarantee that the US maintains as the international champion in advanced research, academia, and entrepreneurship. Since then, the United States has invested $134 billion in academic institutions.

Academic schooling in the United Kingdom is mostly provided by the government but they were concerned by declining quality of education as a result of insufficient budget and failed transparency. Therefore, a variety of improvements in academic financing were made which included achievement-based support for training and development. Portable pupil’s aid was also implemented throughout the previous couple of decades in the UK. This aided the United Kingdom's re-establishment as being among the globe's greatest advanced academic countries. The United Kingdom formulated legislation, which at the time seemed like a potentially risky move by allowing institutions to compete for students and impose adjustable prices, but in the end, it effectively ended the country’s s-controlled pricing framework.

As Beijing resolved to establish a free market economic system in 1978, academic reforms were launched alongside other economic structural changes. Academic Institutions has formerly been a government-run institution where zero fees were charged. The pupil’s accommodation costs were also covered by the government. China's Academic Institution systems have altered dramatically ever since. Universities and colleges in China were allowed to establish linked firms because they were encouraged to broaden existing funding streams. Academic Institutions in China have obtained greater federal funding as well as growing assistance from non-traditional organizations. China extensively engaged corporate investors in Academic Institutions under a federal policy passed in 2002. Special funding commitments were made in 1993 for China's 100 best institutes to improve facilities to world norms. In 1998, nine elite institutions received yet more support to help them become even superior. 

The Australian administration resolved in 2003, as part of an interwoven program of Academic Institution improvements, to boost financing assistance for academia and greatly improve the availability of private loans and grants for undergraduates & postgraduates. Teaching, workforce efficiency, administration, pupil funding, innovation, cooperation, and excellence are all part of Australia's Academic Institution transformation program. 

Most European countries have free higher education with no tuition fees (Germany, Norway, Iceland, Finland). Most European countries also have a well-polished framework of student loans and grants distribution which are needed for rent (in some cases for students coming from rural backgrounds). There are also plenty of scholarship opportunities far superior to the USA or Canada as of date. Most European companies also provide internship opportunities (as most universities require students to do an internship for the successful completion of their bachelor’s or master’s degree) for students such that their technical knowledge in industry increases along with their academic and research knowledge. This helped Europe in becoming the world’s most skillful place. 

In opposition to the trends in the preceding nations, India continues to enjoy the beauty of a few of her early successes in the IT industry. While part of the development and prosperity in the IT industry may be ascribed to federal regulation, the majority of it is due to external factors including

1.      huge demographic foundation with a sizable proportion of English-speaking people,

2.      India's intrinsic strengths, such as its strong mathematical capabilities, which proved helpful in the contemporary economy and

3.      the accomplishment of only a handful of colleges & universities that emphasized excellence and acquired exceptionally talented Indian candidates.

The fresh crop of investors and private companies recognized a vast unfulfilled need for employment schooling as a great potential. This led to a massive development of the nation's privatized academic institutions and schooling industry.

While India’s expenditure on education is 3.1% of GDP ranking 144 out of 198 countries as of 2019. 

Source: https://www.statista.com/chart/15434/the-countries-spending-the-most-on-education/

The following is a brief list of problems regarding Indian higher education: -


The following is a brief list of suggested measures to improve higher education in India: -


Source: https://www.drishtiias.com/to-the-points/Paper2/higher-education-in-india-1